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Summarized Literature Reviews

Intensive Case Management

July 2017

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

Individuals with substance abuse disorders commonly have concurrent mental and physical health diagnosis and face multiple barriers to treatment. Such individuals oftentimes need assistance with multiple facets of their lives, including housing, employment, and relationships. Many times such individuals are also suffer from homelessness, have criminal justice involvement, and are high utilizers of public services, yet have not responded well to usual treatment services. Research has shown case management to be a promising approach for substance abuse treatment as its principle goal is to maintain engagement, retention, and provide a variety of services through a continuum of care approach. Findings suggest individuals are more likely to succeed in treatment when their other problems are addressed concurrently with substance abuse (SAMHSA, 2012). Intensive case management and assertive community treatment are two models that have shown specific promise for populations such as these.

Community Supports Shuttle

July 2017

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

Difficulty in accessing health care and social service delivery systems has been identified as one factor that intensifies mental health and social disadvantage particularly for high need/high cost individuals who are the most likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged (Sherry et. al. 2016). Proximity to services and lack of transportation to reach these services has been cited by research as an important barrier to accessing services, treatment, and healthcare (Preister et.al. 2016, Adler, Pritchett, Kauth, & Mott, 2014; Rosen et al., 2004).

Social Security Income, Outreach, Access and Recovery (SOAR)

June 2017

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

SOAR is a national program that seeks to end homelessness through increased access to SSI/SSDI income supports for eligible adults who are experiencing or at risk of homelessness, have a mental illness, medical impairment, and/or a co-occurring substance use disorder.

Medication Assisted Treatment

May 2017

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

Medication Assisted Treatment combines pharmacotherapy with a full program of assessment, psychosocial intervention, and support services. In a comprehensive MAT setting, patients should have access to a variety of psychosocial services and case management, including residential and outpatient programs that offer individual and group counseling on a periodic or as needed basis, peer help programs (i.e. 12-step programs), mobile treatment teams or other means to access treatment. More recently jails have been creating induction and maintenance programs due to the rise of opioid addicted inmates.

Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD) Programs

April 2017

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

Diversion can be categorized into several phases, according to the Center for Health and Justice at TASK (2013). This includes diversion at the law enforcement phase, diversion at the pretrial or prosecution phase, and diversion at the problem-solving/specialty court phase. This research summary focuses on diversion at the law enforcement phase, also considered to be law enforcement pre-booking diversion. Typically, oversight is handled by the county sheriff and/or the municipal police department, and has extensive coordination with treatment and mental health facilities, housing authorities, and other appropriate agencies.

Substance Abuse Outpatient Treatment

March 2017

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

Substance abuse outpatient treatment programs provide services to individuals with Substance Use Disorders (SUD) who do not require 24-hour medical supervision or detoxification. These programs are designed to provide psychosocial support systems to aid in substance abuse treatment and relapse management and are considered to be an alternative option to inpatient treatment or residential treatment (McCarty et al., 2014).

School Based Substance Abuse Intervention

March 2017

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

Intervention models have been found to be much more successful when being tailored to the given population. It is highly recommended that the needs of a given population be assessed prior to the selection of a model or program (Strein, 2012). Based upon the needs of the population, an appropriate model/program can be selected and implemented properly. Moreover, research suggests that utilizing several modalities of intervention conjunctively produce more successful outcomes (Das, 2016).

Resource Recovery Center

December 2016

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

The goal of the RRC is to improve transition planning and improve linkages of inmates released from custody to community-based services to improve public safety and reduce crime and recidivism. Designing an effective prisoner re-entry strategy requires a clear understanding of the nature of the re-entry problem in the locality in which the re-entry resource center will be situated. Focusing on jail reentry is an opportunity for local governments to reduce recidivism and associated costs. Local governments are well positioned to coordinate the re-entry process because they operate law enforcement and jails, health and human services departments, housing authorities, workforce development boards and local schools, all of which are key partners in any comprehensive re-entry effort (Jannetta et al., 2011). In the first few days after release, individuals returning to the community after being incarcerated are at high risk for drug use, homelessness, and other problems that may lead to reoffending (Jannetta et al., 2011).

Drop in Centers and Clubhouses

December 2016

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

Consumer run Drop-in Centers (CDRI) are intended to play a critical social support function, especially for consumers with a history of an/or at high risk for psychiatric hospitalizations, providing organized and informal recreational and social activities in which consumers and the drop-in center’s program staff can assist each other in solving their daily living problems (Mowbray et al., 2005). The goal of CDRIs are to provide a safe, supportive, and normalizing environment in the community for individuals labeled mentally ill, especially for those who are isolated in society; to provide an atmosphere of acceptance in which individuals feel needed and can grow in self-worth, dignity, and self-respect; to increase knowledge about the community by learning from one another; to provide a place where social and recreational activities can occur, enabling individuals with severe emotional difficulties to conquer social and communication problems and assume productive lifestyles in community settings (Mowbray et al., 2005). In CDRIs, people who use the services run the program; all the decision makers, providers, and recipients are on and the same (Zinman, 1986).

Certified Peer Support Workers

December 2016

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

Traditionally peer support has occurred naturally in settings shared by people with mental health problems, but intentional or formalized peer support most likely began with the establishment of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) (Repper & Carter, 2010). Most of the services provided by PSWs are for people living in the local community with a defined problem (substance misuse, anxiety and panic, people recently discharged from hospital, or people in crisis) (Repper & Carter, 2010). The employment of PSWs within mental health services has been slow to develop, possibly impeded by stigma and stereotypes of people with a mental illness (Repper & Carter, 2010).

Mental Health Awareness Campaigns

November 2016

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

This research summary focuses on information regarding the necessary components needed in order to facilitate an effective mental health awareness campaign. Evaluations of mental health and suicide-related educational campaigns are relatively rare and generally methodologically weak, which limits definitive conclusions. Recent reviews have concluded that suicide prevention and so-called “mental health literacy” campaigns can make short-term improvements in mental health and suicide related knowledge and attitudes, for example, increased recognition of depression. However, most studies show limited effects on behaviors when communications are used alone (Goldney et al., 2008)

Mental Health First Aid and Emotional CPR

October 2016

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

Mental Health First Aid MHFA) is an 8-hour mental health literacy program in which laypeople learn the signs and symptoms of behavioral health problems and crises, ways to support those who are facing a crisis, and where to refer for appropriate professional care (SAMHSA, 2016). Developed in 2000 by Betty Kitchener AM and Professor Tony Jorm, Mental Health First Aid Australia is a national not-for-profit organization focused on mental health training and research.

Adult Intermediate Levels of Care

October 2016

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

Often, intermediate care takes place in multiple settings such as hospitals, intermediate care facilities (ICF), nursing homes, and at patient ’ homes, though some research suggests a combination of home care, hospitals, and nursing homes in order to create an egalitarian system of long-term care (Kane, R., & Kane, R. A., 1978). The majority of the literature on adult intermediate levels of care are focused on care for the elderly (65 years and older). The objective of intermediate care is independent from care and patient’s ability to live at home on their own, and to prevent readmission.

Scattered and Single Site Housing

September 2016

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

The development and implementation of supportive housing programs are becoming a key component in governments efforts to curtail homelessness in communities. Two primary models are used to address homelessness: scattered-site, and single-site. As previously described both housing models share the Housing First philosophy, but differ in the nature of housing, and accessibility of services. These differences lead to differences in retention rates, service procurement, and community structure (i.e. community supports) (Collins, et. al, 2013).

Youth Transitional Living Services

August 2016

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

Youth transitional services are designed to address the needs of youth in transition to adulthood as they age out of youth services. Often times these services take the form of independent living services, housing, vocational training, employment, educational, mental health, substance abuse, financial capability, life skills, identity formation, and service coordination.

Youth Transitional Living Services Addendum

August 2016

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

This document is an addendum to the Youth Transitional Living Services literature review and more specifically addresses the literature in regards to the definition of homeless youth populations and LGBT homeless youth.

Mobile Crisis Team

August 2016

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

The general goals of the MCTs are to provide on-site crisis intervention services to the community and diversion from jail and Psychiatric Emergency Services (PES). Most frequently, MCTs are dispatched by service calls from 911 or emergency crisis lines (NMCAL) as the highest level response for psychiatric emergencies. MCTs are an additional entry point into the Crisis Services triage, which includes crisis respite and transportation services.

Forensic Assertive Community Treatment Team (FACT)

August 2016

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

Forensic assertive community treatment (FACT) teams are constructed using the same principles as assertive community treatment (ACT) teams with minor adaptations. The primary distinction is in the target population, and composition of FACT team members. Unlike ACT teams, FACT specifically targets populations that have frequent contacts with the criminal justice system.

Crisis Stabilization and Crisis Respite Care

August 2016

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

Crisis services are designed to serve individuals who are experiencing a psychiatric emergency. Crisis stabilization and crisis respite services are part of the crisis services continuum and because they are close on the continuum are reviewed here together. Crisis stabilization services are alternatives to hospital emergency departments (ED) or an inpatient setting, providing 23-hour crisis stabilization care and proper step-down services. Twenty-three-hour crisis stabilization services specify that the patient stays under observation for less than 24 hours. Crisis respite services, on the other hand, are designed to be 24/7 and patients stay longer than a day. Crisis respite services can take a variety of forms including short-term inpatient and residential and be peer-operated/assisted.

Adverse Childhood Experiences

August 2016

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

This research summary focuses on information about preventing ACEs from occurring or minimizing the effects of ACEs in children.

Community Engagement Teams

July 2016

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

From our analysis of the literature, we were unable to find models of community engagement teams. In this report we describe two models: crisis resolution teams (CRTs), and peer support services. In combination these types of models have similar functions to how CETs are described above. Both models have similar objectives, but have different frequencies of care.

Assisted Outpatient Treatment

July 2016

Type:

  • Summarized Literature Reviews

A substantial body of research conducted in diverse jurisdictions over more than two decades establishes the effectiveness of AOT in improving treatment outcomes for its target population (Mental Illness Policy, 2017) . Specifically, research demonstrates that AOT reduces the risks of hospitalization, arrest, incarceration, crime, victimization, and violence. AOT also increases treatment adherence and eases the strain placed on family members or other primary caregivers.